There are at least two types of blood tests that should be must for men and women before their marriages. The first is one’s partner's blood type is an essential requirement before getting married. Why is it important? It may determine the health of your child. One must be fully aware of his/her partner's ABO and Rh blood type. What is this? The ABO refers to the different types of blood groups, such as A, B, O and AB. The case of Rh is different. The Rh is a compound which may or may not be present in your red blood cells. People with Rh compound are termed as Rh positive and people without the Rh compound are known as Rh negative. In the case of giving birth to the first baby there is no problem. But the problem may start from the second conception. In that case before having conceived for a second time the mother should consult doctors. Actually the situation is problematic especially if the mother is Rh negative and the father is Rh positive. In this case, the baby might be born Rh positive, and there are chances of excessive bleeding and lots of other complications. If both partners are negative or positive, then it is not problematic. But only the mother being negative and not the father can be a serious situation.
The second one is Thalassaemia. It is caused due to a defective globin protein present in haemoglobin, the oxygen carrier in blood. There are two globin proteins: alpha and beta, each coded by a separate gene. We have two copies of each gene, one coming from each parent. Thus, for both alpha and beta globin we have two copies, one from each of our parents. As long as the globin genes have no defect in them, normal hemoglobin is produced. If there are mutations in the globin gene(s), it results in defective hemoglobin. When both copies of the gene are defective it results in thalassaemia.
Some well-known points are to be noted here. Thalassemia trait is not a disease. It is not an illness and will never turn into an illness. A trait carrier of thalassemia will always be a trait carrier. It is a genetic trait passed down from parents to children. Being a trait carrier is not contagious. There are two types of thalassemia trait: Alpha thalassemia trait and Beta thalassemia trait. A carrier of thalassemia trait is a healthy person. Being a carrier of thalassemia does not cause known health problems which require medical treatment. Thalassemia trait will not impair your work, diet or exercise.
If you and your partner both have thalassemia trait, for each pregnancy, there is a:
25% chance that the child will have thalassemia disease
25% chance that the child will have normal hemoglobin
50% chance that the child will have thalassemia trait